Cephalosporins disrupts the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The petidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity. The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by transpeptidases known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). PBPs bind to the D-Ala-D-Ala at the end of muropeptides (peptidoglycan precursors) to crosslink the peptidoglycan. Beta-lactam antibiotics mimic this site and competitively inhibit PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.